Puppy Classes

Before You Get Your Puppy by Dr Ian Dunbar.

Click here to download your free copy of Before You Get a Puppy.

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Why does my dog get over aroused?

Allowing dogs to continuously rehearse aroused behaviors can cause many problems. To get a better understanding of arousal in our dogs, we need to look at the definition of arousal.


“Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the reticular activating system in the brain stem, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness, mobility and readiness to respond.” According to Wikipedia.


Although this definition were written for describing arousal in humans, exactly the same count for your dog. When aroused you might notice that your dog is quite tense and ready to go, ready for action in a flash. Different things or events might trigger your dog to get aroused. Triggers might include other dogs on a walk, people walking past your property, you playing fetch with your dog or your child interacting with your dog. Whatever the reason for your dog getting aroused, in some cases this arousal level gets so high that he cannot contain himself, and this causes him not to think clearly. When this happens, the high energy interferes with his judgement and the result is poor behavior.  During this period of high arousal, your dog might be barking at the man walking in the street the one moment and the next he will re-direct his energy to another possible dog or even another child or person. In another instance you might be playing tug of war with your dog, and the next moment he might nip your arm or hand. As he is over aroused at this point, he bites down harder as normal and might even puncture the skin.


The thing is, over arousal is a build-up of unused energy that needs to go somewhere. If you leave it and accept it as normal behaviour it is likely to evolve into something more serious. In some cases it can lead to trigger frustration and that in turn might lead to unwanted destructive behaviors. This might for instance cause a dog to get aroused at the sight of any other dogs, and he might start chewing his lead because of this. In more severe cases, arousal can change into aggression. Because your dog now gets over aroused at the sight of another dog, and he is restrained on his leash, he might redirect his aggression to you and he might end up biting you or whoever is walking him. It is important to take steps to lower this arousal threshold if you should own a dog who gets quickly aroused. As the dog don’t know of any other way to behave when aroused, it is our duty to teach them how to have better control over their emotions.


So how do I know if and when my dog is over aroused?


Many dog owners don’t even know that they actually have a problem as they are used to their dogs acting in a certain way. Breed types often gets blamed for this, saying as this is a working breed or power breed, they are supposed to act this way. What owners don’t realize, is that with a little bit of training and guidance, your dog can be taught how to be calmer and to have better control over his impulses.  So what does and aroused dog look like? The following are tell tail indicators that your dog might be over aroused.


  1. He might have a very fast heart rate.
  2. He might be panting very rapidly
  3. His pupils might be dilated
  4. He might have a stiff body posture, ready to run
  5. His teeth might be chattering
  6. He might be jumping around with lots of barking
  7. He might get mouthy, taking your hand in his mouth
  8. He might be pacing up and down
  9. Some dogs spins in circles
  10. His impulse control will almost be non-existing.

How do I lower my dog’s arousal?


In many cases, we as owners are the main cause of arousal. The first step is to change our own behaviors in order to help our dogs not to get aroused. Here are a few things you might give a try.


  1. Make an appointment to have your dog checked out by a veterinarian. There are medical conditions that might be responsible for anxiety and stress that might lead to over arousal. You might also want to visit a nutritionist to work out a new diet for your dog as some food additives have been associated with over arousal in dogs.
  2. Provide Physical and Mental stimulation. Many of us have dogs that were originally selectively bred for their useful functions. As we have them now as pets, we expect these dogs to cope by not doing anything. Well this is a recipe for behavioral problems. If we don’t give our dogs the mental and physical exercise they NEED in order to cope, they will find something to do by themselves in order to make themselves feel better, and it might be something that we might not approve of. An increase in the stress hormone cortisol is also linked to under stimulated dogs. The bottom line is, the lack of stimulation both physically and mentally is a recipe for disaster in dogs.
  3. Avoid your dog from getting over aroused. If you know that your dog gets over aroused at certain places, rather look for alternative places to walk the dog, maybe where there are no other dogs for instance. If your dog gets over aroused by playing ball, lessen the times you play ball and give him some alternative things to do. The times he gets over excited should be lessened.
  4. Identify the things that gets your dog over excited. Watch your dog and try to figure out what is causing the over arousal. Maybe it’s you coming home, the sight of his favorite toy, maybe when he sees another dog, maybe if you visit the agility field. Write all these possible triggers down so you can start working on encouraging better self-control.
  5. Desensitizing to triggers. Desensitization is a behavior modification technique that works very well in the sense that it will teach your dog to lower his arousal levels and to keep under his threshold. This means you start working at a distance where the triggers are less intense. If your dog barks and gets over aroused at the fence, control the area so there is enough space between the possible dog walking next to the fence and your dog. With enough distance between them, your dog will get less aroused.  In many cases dogs gets over excited when the owner pics up the lead as he associates the lead with his walks. In cases like that you might start picking up the lead and just putting it somewhere else repeatedly during the day. In time he will get less excited when you pick up the lead. The same goes when you gets home. If he goes crazy every time you arrives home, try to keep yourself at a lower key until he has calmed down. When you are less excited your dog will become less excited too in time.
  6. Teach your dog to be calm. Once you have successfully desensitized you dog to the stimuli that caused the over excitement, you can actually start teaching your dogs that calmer behaviors gets rewards. When he gets aroused, the rewards simply goes away. Feeding time is a good example here. When your dog gets too excited when you are busy with his food by jumping up, just stop working on it until he is calmer. When it is feeding time ask for a sit before presenting his food. If he jumps up before you put his food down, pick it up again and only gives the food when he offers a calmer sit. In this case being calm = food. Calmer behaviors gets reinforced in this way.
  7. Increase the criteria. This must be done with great care. If you see your dog gets aroused by some trigger with moving him closer to it, take a step back and increase the distance. It is a good idea to start the behavior modification in an area where there are no or very few distractions. Slowly add distractions as you go along. If you see the dog gets aroused by the identified trigger, add distance again.
  8. Be careful of repetitive behaviors. Dogs do what works for them, and behaviors that gets reinforced (rewarded) will be repeated. If you practice a sit for example, the more you reward your dog for the sit the more he will repeat the behavior. In the case of your dog barking at people it gets a bit more complicated. As people walk past your house, your dog might bark at them. While he is doing this, the people disappears as they continue their walk. In the dog’s mind, him barking at them, made them go away. The strategy worked for him therefore next time somebody walks by he will probably barks at him again, making him go away. If you allow these behaviors to continue the desensitization will not work. Keep him away from situations that might cause arousal until desensitization has been successfully completed.
  9. In extreme cases, calming medication might be needed together with a desensitization program. This is mostly done in cases where a dog’s arousal gets triggered by conditions like underlying anxiety and stress. In these cases the dog will not be able to learn as unless he can be calmed down. A veterinarian will prescribe the best drug to help in specific situations. Once the dog is calmer, a behavior modification program can begin. Drugs alone in such cases will not solve the problem and must be done in conjunction with a behavior modification program.

To lower arousal in a dog is not that easy. It takes quite a lot of effort but even more important it takes consistency. You need to be able to “read” your dog and know the most subtle signs of him getting aroused. Intervention is needed before he gets aroused. The best thing to do would be to get the help of a force-free qualified behaviorist to help. The end goal would be to raise your dog’s response threshold and to change his emotional state when in close approximation of the trigger causing the arousal. Alternative more appropriate behaviors should be taught as well. Many trainer uses a method called flooding where they force the dog to be “calm” by punishing them for those unwanted behaviors. These averse methods however only suppresses these unwanted behaviors but don’t change the dog’s emotional responses towards the triggers. These methods also causes stress and anxiety and although it would seems like it worked, the dogs might quickly revert to those unwanted behaviors triggered by anxiety and stress.

Beware of the Trainer! By Taryn Blyth

BEWARE of the “trainer” who says they will train your dog without food or toys. There is no MAGIC WAND in dog training. Dogs work either to GAIN PLEASURE or AVOID FEAR/PAIN. There are a limited number of controllable resources that dogs will be reliably motivated by in order to work with us and learn behaviours which do not come naturally to them. Food and toys are the most practical, easily accessible and controllable of these motivators. A trainer who thinks they are not necessary is either stubborn or uneducated. If they refuse to use food or toys, they are without any doubt using force and intimidation. If you want happy, well-adjusted dogs, choose to train in a way that makes them feel good.

Here are a few RED FLAGS to watch out for when looking for a trainer:

1. GUARANTEED OR IMMEDIATE RESULTS: No qualified trainer with an ounce of common sense would guarantee such a thing. Most behaviour problems develop over weeks, months or years and take time to resolve. While highly aversive training methods might appear to bring about quick fixes they either NEVER last or they create MORE unwanted behaviour problems. A person who guarantees immediate results is either delusional, lying or intending to do something VERY NASTY to your dog.

2. NO QUALIFICATIONS OR MENTION OF THEIR EXPERTISE: Dog training is a science. The science has to be learned. Unless someone spends time formally studying how dogs learn and what influences behaviour, they will never have the full knowledge necessary to be able to help you and your dog properly. Qualified trainers are proud of their qualifications and will want their clients to know what these are. When there is no mention of any qualifications in the trainer’s bio, then they likely don’t exist.

3. NO MENTION OF TRAINING METHODS: A trainer with nothing to hide will be open and up front about HOW they train, WHAT methods they use and WHY. Trainers who never mention their training philosophy either don’t have one (so anything goes) or they don’t understand what they are doing and can’t explain it clearly to clients. They may also be HIDING what they intend doing to your dog, because they know it may be controversial.

When looking for a trainer, find someone who’s website or Facebook page tells you very clearly WHO they are, what QUALIFICATIONS they have and HOW they train. Read articles by the person and if possible watch videos of them training their own dogs or working with clients. Look to see that the dogs working with them are enjoying themselves. Check that they are in fact using positive reinforcement and not physical manipulation or intimidation. Check that their blogs or articles reflect a thorough knowledge of the science behind training.

AVOID trainers who do nothing but advertise their services without telling you exactly what those services are or revealing anything about what they actually do!

Why We Can’t Give Guarantees to “FIX” Your Dog by Taryn Blyth.


I had a rather unpleasant experience recently with a person who wanted help with a reactive dog, but wanted me to guarantee that I could “fix” the problem, before agreeing to book a consultation. When I tried to explain that I could not make such guarantees and sent the person details on how we would approach this type of problem, as well as factors that might influence the outcome, to help her make an informed decision as to whether she wanted to proceed,she refused to read the information (because, in her own words, it was too much effort) and insisted again that I guarantee a result. At that point I responded that I was obviously not what she was looking for.

The problem is that there are “behaviourists” and trainers that do guarantee results. One popular local expert states on their website that they will fix any problem in one session. So, what is wrong with this? Should we not be confident in what we do? Surely, if we know what we are doing, we can solve whatever problem the person is experiencing with their dog?

Well, actually no. Dogs are not appliances that can be fixed, oiled or rewired when a part is broken. Dogs are living beings and behaviour is a complex function of genetics, developmental experience and reinforcement history. Physiology, health, past learning, general mood and current environment all play a role in how a dog will respond to a situation and how far they will progress with a certain behaviour modification plan. Furthermore, some owners’ expectations for their dogs’ behaviour in general is completely unrealistic and may have to be carefully “negotiated” during a consultation.

For example, there are some dogs that exhibit dog-dog reactivity that may very quickly change their behaviour to become quite sociable, with the right training and opportunities, there are others that may make slow progress, but learn to accept other dogs within certain limitations over a much longer period of time and there are others still that will never be comfortable in close proximity to other dogs, no matter how long you work with them. Why are there these differences in outcome? Well, there could be many factors. Some dogs may have had a really traumatic experience that they struggle to overcome. Some may have had virtually no social experience at all and really have no idea how to interact with other dogs. On the other hand, you may have a dog that has become a bit rusty socially or had some poor social experiences, but has an excellent early socialisation history to fall back on and so “recovers” fairly quickly. You may have a dog that physiologically reacts more mildly to stress or who does not disinhibit as quickly into a fight or flight response, which means that they are generally easier to work with. However, you might also have a dog that has done serious damage to another dog and who it is too risky to work with safely around other dogs, meaning that management may be a better option.

During a consultation, we would obviously try to find out as much as we can about a dog, so that we have a better idea of what they can cope with and how they might respond to certain scenarios. If it turned out that the dog was really well-socialised, with a fantastic early history, a generally confident and easy-going disposition and a good track record of positive and appropriate interactions with other dogs and developed some reactivity due to just a couple of recent bad experiences, I would be fairly optimistic about making progress and possibly getting the dog back to where he was before this happened. If, on the other hand, I found the dog in question was hand-raised, had no exposure to other dogs at all before the age of 6 months, is generally anxious around anything new and has been rehearsing reactive behaviour for 4 years, I would be far less optimistic. It doesn’t mean that we would not be able to help that dog, but the outcome may not be what the owner is hoping for. In some cases we may not be able to find out much about a dog at all (with most rescued dogs their history is full of holes) and may have to try and guess at how and why the reactivity developed, making predictions about likely outcomes even harder.

Then there is the human factor. While we may have the greatest training or behaviour modification plan, we have to rely on owners to implement it. Handing someone a plan and showing them how to apply it is similar to giving someone a lovely recipe and explaining how to cook the dish. Unless the person actually goes into the kitchen and assembles all the ingredients according to the instructions, the delicious meal will never appear.

So, what does it mean if someone guarantees results? Usually, it means one or more of the following:
1. They are lying to you
2. They are self-deluded
3. They are using positive punishment techniques resulting in emotional shut-down, which inhibits ALL behaviour temporarily and may look like a quick fix
4. They don’t understand anything about animal behaviour at all

As I said to the person who wanted a guarantee: The only guarantee I can give, is if you find a “behaviourist” or trainer who gives guarantees, they have no idea what they are doing!

Dog Fighting and how you can Help by the NSPCA.

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Crate Training – Step By Step Guide to A Distress Free, Force Free Crate Trained Dog or Pup by Emma Judson

Please sit and read this guide thoroughly before making a start, as it is important that every single step of this is carried out and nothing is skipped.
It is also important to understand, before you start, why it is important to crate train your dog.
Crates are often seen as a place to lock a naughty dog, or a place where dogs are left shut away for long hours, and it is true, they can be misused just like any other item of dog related equipment.
However properly trained your dog can find being crated reassuring and a visual cue to relax and go to sleep.
Crates can be used to aid in toilet training, dealing with fear or reactivity, introducing new dogs, in rehabilitation from illness or injury. Crates are commonly used in transporting dogs, in groomers and of course, in a veterinary surgery or hospital.
Unless you can guarantee that your dog is never going to travel, be groomed, go to the vets, require strict and confined rest – something you can only do if you can see the future – then your dog needs to know how to handle being crated!
You will need: 1 Wire crate appropriately sized for your dog with a bed or blanket inside – if you have a large breed puppy who is currently tiny, a small crate is ok for training purposes as long as its big enough for your dog right now. 1 pot of very high value treats – try cheese, hot dog, chicken, whatever your dog likes best 1 food dispensing toy such as a Kong or similar
Step 1: Crate = Treats
Sit beside the open doorway of the crate – you want the door to be wide open as far as it will go and ideally you sit to the other side, so you are sat beside the edge of the crate where the door would latch shut. Have your pot of treats with you and of course, your dog or puppy.
Show your dog the treats if necessary, and then toss into the crate, one treat.
Your dog should follow the treat into the crate to eat it.
At this point, IF you have a dog or pup who has never seen a crate before OR who has and is generally ok with the idea, they will go straight in.
If you have a dog or pup who has already been terrified of a crate or is generally nervous, they may not go straight in. If this is the case, put the treat right by the door and start with just rewarding them for approaching the crate.
It is really important to note, your dog or pup CAN come straight out of the crate once they have eaten the treat – it is entirely THEIR choice.
The rule is super simple. Going in the crate earns a treat. Not going in the crate, or coming out of the crate, earns no treat.
Even the daftest of dogs can work out the very simple maths here – in crate = goodies. Out of crate = 0 goodies.
Play the ‘treats are in the crate’ game for a few minutes – if you only get a pup zooming in and out of the crate happily for treats, that is fine at this stage. If you get a pup or adult dog who goes in and hovers to see if more treats will happen without them having to come out and go in again, reward that, put more treats in BEFORE your dog comes out again.
Ideally we want the dog to hang around inside the crate, hoping for more treats – if he does that, he has chosen to be in there, of his own free will! So reward that, keep tossing in treats and praising your dog – but don’t be tempted to shut that door yet!
Step 2: Crate = More Treats
Hopefully your dog was starting to think by the end of the first session or two, that hanging around in the crate might be an easy way to earn more treats.
If he isn’t, carry on with step one!
For step two, sit slightly to the side of the crate and when he goes in for his first treat, start popping a treat or two through the bars (this is why we are using a wire crate and not a fabric one!).
Your dog is probably still going in the crate and remaining standing, so now I would put in two or three treats, further back into the crate and see if he lies down to eat them. If he DOES, reward that with a small handful through the bars, ideally delivered so that he doesn’t have to get up to reach them – lots of praise for this!
When he is going in and lying down and clearly expecting treats to be delivered you can begin to pause for just a fraction of a second before doing so – this is the beginnings of building up the time he stays in the crate for.
Again, remember, keep AWAY from that crate door, forget it even exists for the time being!
Step 3: Moving Around – you, not him.
By now your dog should be zooming into the crate and lying down and he probably won’t need bribing in there with a treat, but he will still need treats for going in and staying in there.
Vary the length of time he waits for his treat, so lots of times he gets the treats almost straight away, sometimes he waits for a few seconds or even up to 1 minute.
When you are at that level, you can begin to shift your position whilst he is inside the crate. This means you can shuffle further away, or to the side to begin with, then shuffle back and reward him for having done nothing! (The reality is of course he has done a great thing, he’s chosen to stay in the crate despite you moving!)
Remember to move only a tiny bit, and move in whichever direction or fashion is LEAST likely to encourage him to move, hence shuffling rather than standing up at this stage. It’s also important to remember to keep the time you spend ‘away’ very brief, so you may even need to just lean your body away, then back, then reward, before shuffling away.. then edging away…
Step 4: Find your Feet
You are ready for this stage if you can lean and shuffle or edge away from your dog in the crate, in a variety of directions, for a minimum of 30 seconds and ideally a max of around 2 minutes, before returning and rewarding him.
Watch your dog carefully now, does he look relaxed and comfortable or does he look like he’s ready to spring up and out of the crate? You want relaxed and comfortable so if he is looking anxious and ready to spring up and out, go back a bit, reduce the times you are ‘away’ by a few feet, increase the reward too so that its more fun for him.
It is really important not to skip this stage or rush it, because now you are going to be standing up instead of sitting by the crate and initially, you want to start out sitting and stand whilst he is in there.
Wait until he is relaxed in the crate, stand up slowly and drop in a few treats by bending over. Then squat back down or kneel back down (you can sit if it’s easy for you to jump up and down from sitting!)
For this stage you are JUST going to be working on kneeling/squatting near the cage and then standing up and rewarding, and back down again. Do not step away from the crate at this point.
Mix it up with work from the earlier steps, so sometimes sit and reward for him staying, sometimes sit and lean away, or sit and bum-shuffle away and back and reward.
It is important that going in the crate does not become an accurate predictor or visual cue that tells your dog ‘THE PERSON WILL BE LEAVING NOW’ because if your dog has an issue with being left, this will be a big problem. Mix up the work so that sometimes the reward is for a really easy thing, sometimes it’s a little harder – resist the trap of making his task harder and harder every single time because that leads to dogs predicting, and becoming sour to the lesson you are teaching.
Step 5 – Stepping Away
NOW you should have a dog who really could not give a damn if you are sat there, sat a foot away, bum shuffling around, leaning in and out, standing up, squatting down – all he knows is, he’s in the crate and he gets treats for stopping in there, and that’s GOOD!
You should start to find that if your crate is somewhere available most of the time and open for him to go in, he is starting to choose to go in there even when it isn’t a training session. If that is the case, randomly reward him for that, just walk by and drop a tasty morsel in to him, you could also offer him his meals or treat filled kongs in there now.
The next step is to ask him to go in the crate and then stand up and step away, just one step, and then back and reward. Build that up over the course of several sessions until you can take several steps away, pause, return and reward and he does not bat an eyelid.
REALLY resist the urge to shut him in there now – there’s a high chance you’d get away with it at this stage but you could easily cause a problem if he panics, and the last thing we want is him learning that he CAN’T get out, that would make him fear the crate.
Step 6 – Going Away
You should not be starting this step until your dog or pup is belting into the crate, lying down, falling asleep in there, happy to eat meals or treats in there, offering you ‘im in my crate’ behaviours and is actually sometimes found in the crate when you were out of the room.
So now for your training session you will start with your dog in the crate, reward him, step away, step back, reward him, walk around the crate, reward him, and step outside the door (ideally an internal door) or otherwise pop out of sight for just a split second, then back without much in the way of fuss and reward him.
Repeat this and mix it up again, as we did before, so that going in the crate does not necessarily mean you will be leaving the room or going out of sight.
Keep working on this stage until you can leave the room for a few minutes, you could leave and go to another floor of your house, or you could leave the room AND leave the house, all for a few minutes, and then return and your dog hasn’t moved out of the crate.
You may need to set up your crate in another room or use a phone or webcam to record him.
IF at all possible, practice some of the earlier stages in other rooms in your home – this isn’t always possible because not every home has room for a crate and space for you to work around it, in every room but if you CAN, it will really help your dog generalise that the crate is cool no matter where it is. When doing this, the golden rule is to step back down a level or two so that the work is a little easier, to compensate for the new location making things a little harder.
At this point if you come back and your dog is NOT in the crate, I would say nothing or if you can’t resist, I’d go to the empty crate and go to put a treat in there and then act silly ‘OH THERE IS NO DOG HERE OH DEAR’ and pocket the treat – this VERY much depends on your dog, some of my dogs would be ‘OMG I SHOULD HAVE BEEN IN THERE… DOH! and some wouldn’t give a rats, but there are dogs who might be upset by this behaviour so if thats the case, don’t do this.
Whatever sort of dog you have though, if you come in and the dog is not in the crate, then its likely you have gone too fast and tried to be out too long, or too far away – so the IMPORTANT thing here is, you make a note of that, go back a step or two and work a bit more on an earlier level. it is not the end of the world if this happens, no one died, so don’t get upset and certainly, do not get angry.
OMG yes really!
So, now you should have a dog who loves his crate, wants to be in his crate, stays in his crate whilst you move around the home, hoping for his reward.
Now you will go ALLLLLL the way back down to step one, but you will push the crate door closed gently. You will be sat by the crate again as you were at the beginning, putting treats through the bars of the crate.
Here’s the really important part – the split second your dog approaches the door, reaches out to nudge it or paw it or push it… you fling that door open FAST – YOU do that, you do NOT at any stage, ever, wait for your dog to try to get the door open themselves.
So lets say your dog approached the crate door and you flung it wide open for him – he has probably come out and looked at you like ‘what?’.
Say nothing, just give your dog a second or two and see if HE offers ‘going in the crate’ – if he does reward him, if he doesn’t within a second or two then toss a treat in the crate and start again.
What your dog is learning here is that he is NEVER EVER trapped in the crate, even if it looks like he is, you are opening the door and releasing him before he FEELS trapped – but there is no reward for coming out.
Long term your dog won’t care if the door is open or closed, because being in the crate has always been rewarding eventually, coming out has never been an issue and isn’t rewarding.
If a dog IS ever trapped in a crate two things happen – firstly, they feel fear, and they distrust the crate, but secondly, when they get out, coming OUT has then been extremely rewarding – because the relief from feeling trapped in there is massively reinforcing.
By never allowing your dog to feel trapped, you also never allow him to feel that relief!
Gradually re-work your way through all the steps with the door pushed closed – but really importantly at this point NOT LATCHED SHUT…
You will need to stay near enough the crate that you can flip the door open fast, and work steadily enough that you are sure your dog won’t try to get out before you are ready to release him.
Step 8 – locking the door
So to recap, by now you should have a dog who will stay in the crate with the door open or the door pushed closed, whether you are in the room or you have popped in and out, or stepped out for a few minutes.
He should be really relaxed in there and want to remain in there for the rewards you will still be giving him, and he should be used to some period of waiting before those rewards happen.
He should never have attempted to get out of the crate by pushing, nudging or pawing at the door.
If your dog HAS done that, don’t panic, go back a few stages and re-do the foundations again and go a little slower. If you are keeping a diary of your progress you may be able to pinpoint where you rushed something or where something went a bit wrong.
So to introduce the door being locked, again go back a few steps, probably to stepping away and stepping in and out of the room. This time, after a few goes with the door pushed shut, lock it, wait a few seconds without moving, and then unlock it, and carry on the session.
I would NOT end a session immediately after opening the crate door, instead put a few instances of locking the door in the middle of a session with the door closed and mix in the door being open a few times – this means he is not predicting the door being unlocked and opened as either a release cue or cue for his reward and end of session.
Step 9 – Increasing the time he can be crated..
By now you should have a dog who is totally happen to go in his crate, have the door pushed shut, randomly earn rewards in there, have the door locked whilst you move around the room, step outside the room and even the house, for up to around 4 or 5 minutes.
Now you build duration for real, leaving him slightly longer sometimes – again try not to do this as a neat linear progression, do not leave him for 5 minutes on day 1 and 10 minutes on day 2 and 15 minutes on day three as the chances are hes going to predict that the crate now means being left and thats not fun for him.
Instead, mix things up – so maybe hes in there for 5 minutes on day one, but on day 2 you just potter around in the same room as the crate. Maybe on day 3 hes in there for 10 minutes but you are in and out of the house (unloading shopping perhaps), on day 4 you only do 5 minutes but you are sitting reading a magazine and mostly ignoring him.
The point is, its gradual, but it’s no big deal for him, it’s not a predictor for something awful.
Because he has never felt trapped, because he’s never felt any reinforcing relief at being released from the crate, it is not a huge deal being in the crate and the fact he CAN’T come out, at this point is totally irrelevant to him, because he does not WANT to come out in the first place!
Beyond step 9
It is a good idea if you have a crate and will use it regularly, to keep rewarding your dog for being in there even after he seems totally comfy about it. It’s also a good idea to pop him in there for a minute or two when you answer the door, or when a guest comes in, or to give him a tasty bone – just so that he feels it’s a great place to be, and doesn’t mean you are going out.
If you don’t have a crate set up all the time, do be sure to get your crate out from time to time and practice with it, that way it is not a shock to him when a non-doggy visitor comes to stay and you need to use it, or when he has to go to the vets or you are going to take him on holiday and need to use it there.
Never use your crate as a place to shut a dog as punishment – it must stay a safe and rewarding place and he must LIKE being in there. It should go without saying do not abuse your dogs good nature and shut him in there for more than 4 hours at a time (And it will take you some time, months with a puppy) to work up to that length of time anyway!)
Do not allow anyone to tease or torment your dog when he is in the crate – we want to avoid him feeling trapped and a sure fire way to create problems is to allow someone or another animal, to tease your dog whilst crated.
This all may seem a very long winded way of crating your dog, it’s likely you are thinking ‘but i could just shut him in there and he might cry but eventually he will get used to it.’
Some dogs will get over it, and some just suffer in distress quietly, their stress showing up in seemingly unrelated behaviours. Some dogs very obviously don’t get over it and will wreck crates and physically hurt themselves, yell their heads off etc
A lot of people appear to think a dog screaming and scrabbling to get out of a crate is a dog ‘acting out’ or a dog who ‘needs to get over himself’ – that really couldn’t be further from the truth – trapping an animal in a small space is incredibly stressful if not outright terrifying. Even if your dog never associates that fear with you, it will have a knock on effect on his ability to learn and settle and generally be a happy, relaxed dog.
I do disagree that this is actually all that long winded – if you are starting out with a puppy you can get through the first 5 or 6 stages in under a week, the later stages only taking longer because a puppy physically can’t be left all that long – and frankly if you don’t have a couple of weeks to train a puppy, should you really have gotten a puppy?
It may well take a little longer with an adult dog, but we are talking about 5 to 10 minute sessions to start with, a couple of times a day – it isn’t anywhere near the huge undertaking it may seem whilst reading this through.
Emma Judson – www.canineconsultant.co.uk Copyright Emma Judson 2014





What to do when you get him/her home?
Coping with the first few weeks!
How to move forward from there!
Realistic expectations!
The Animal Behaviour Consultants of Southern Africa (©®™)
Taken from a talk given by Louise Thompson
(Accredited animal behaviour consultant ABC of SA©®™)

Many of us involved with animal rescue tend to push adoptions as a good choice for owners wanting a new dog! We cajole, we beg, and are very quick to point out the advantages, the moral reasons, and the humanity of saving a life! However, we are NOT so quick to point out the potential downside! Therefore, it’s not surprising that new owners often have totally unrealistic expectations of their new rescue dog! This can often result in a dog becoming “re-cycled” which is something all rescuers and shelters want to avoid at all costs!

An adopted dog CAN fulfil many expectations, & some rescue animals quickly fit into a new home, new routine, new dogs, new people etc. However, without some time, energy, and effort on a new owner’s part – things can go horribly wrong. It is unrealistic to expect a newly adopted dog to adapt and fit into a family effortlessly or overnight!

Now we all know that some rescue dogs come with excess baggage – this is a given.

So what now? Where to from here?

I am going to make the generous assumption that the shelter is a reputable one, and has “matched” the dog with the “right” family – viz. breed characteristics’, energy levels, life style, environment etc. & that the mandatory sterilisation, micro chipping, health checks, internal & external parasite control has been achieved & any other medical issues have been attended to.

I am also going to make the assumption, that any dog on dog introductions to an existing dog or pack, will have already been made on neutral ground, & that any existing dogs will have met the new rescue dog at least more than once to ensure that there will not be any potential aggression when you get the rescue dog home.

If this is not the case then the prospective owner should insist that this is an absolute necessity before taking home a dog that is expected to fit into an existing pack.
This should be done under strict supervision in a totally controlled environment, with responsible experienced handlers who have extensive knowledge of dog behaviour, body language & communications, & have the skills to intervene if/where necessary with the least amount of stress.

Most people adopt a shelter dog because they are kind, generous people with a genuinely love for dogs. Because they are caring individuals they tend to want to see fast results. In many cases this is not possible. Expectations need to be realistic – regardless of the dog’s history. Generally speaking, there are no quick fixes. In most cases it takes, time, patience & understanding to see improvements – & the first things the new dog in a household needs is ……….. TIME, & SPACE!

There is definitely a “personality type” of human who will be drawn to taking on a shelter dog, and many of these kind people do find it extremely difficult to put rules into place – to instil boundaries and not to totally indulge a traumatised animal from day one! Of course this is not easy. Human maternal and paternal instincts want to shower the dog with affection and most people instinctively want to try and “make up” for the animals early bad experiences.

Dogs need boundaries! Boundaries make them feel safe! Rules provide them with structure. If the human takes on the decision-making/parenting role – it takes“whole load” of responsibility off the dog’s shoulders! Less responsibility equals less stress!

When presented with a behaviour modification programme, with dozens of steps to undertake, many owners see this as daunting, and find it extremely difficult to grasp the emotional differences between dogs and people. Being a good role model/substitute parent is very difficult for these kinds of personalities. Many misguidedly thinking that if they give the dog its own way, in everything it will become a happy, contented dog.

• A good tip to help adoptees to comply with an integration programme is to provide them with short-term goals, emphasising that they only have to achieve one goal at a time.
• A “settling in” programme could be divided into individual goals and on completion of each goal the next one supplied.
• Often supplying adoptees with too much information too soon can cause them to feel overwhelmed.
• With problem dogs this is often intensified as to the new owner, the problems sometimes appear to be insurmountable.
• By dividing a programme up into manageable steps it simplifies the process and makes each and every step more attainable!


The first thing that you do when you get your rescue dog home is

• Don’t force any kind of interaction / social or other!!!!
• Don’t fuss
• Don’t attempt to play “fetch” or solicit play behaviour!
• Don’t introduce her to your family and friends
• Don’t crowd her with your kids
• Don’t introduce her to your family cat, chickens, parrot etc.
• Don’t stress for the first day or so about food – and meals – even if the dog is malnourished. Stress often inhibits appetite!
• However after a day or so – however, if in any doubt or if the dog displays lethargy or the lack of appetite continues DO consult with your veterinarian to rule out any possible physiological cause.


• Make sure before you release him into your garden he is wearing a collar, in case of emergencies. Do this at the shelter/foster home if he is not already wearing one. Also ensure that he is either micro-chipped on has a tag with all your current contact details on in case of an emergency!
• Be as calm & as matter of fact around the dog as you possibly can & try to ensure that the environment is as stress free as possible! You should be in control of the environment & management thereof!
• Provide the dog with easy access to clean water
• Provide the dog with a “safe” place where he/she does not feel forced to interact with anyone or anything unless he wants to. (Can be a crate or corner of a room or if outside a kennel etc). Make sure the dog has a place where his space is not invaded; where he can withdraw to if he does not want to interact. Initially, his rights in this regard should be respected. Many dogs that have been kept in kennel environments are very happy to be “crated” and this provides them with an artificial “den” or “safe place.”
• LET THE DOG DECIDE where he/she feels safe.
• Any change should be extremely gradual. Don’t panic if the dog doesn’t seem interested in a meal – no matter how high value it is! Stress often surpasses appetite!
• Offer small amounts of more frequent meals – you can also make the food a bit more high value. Some insecure dogs battle to eat when humans are present. However – there is always the other end of the scale. The half starved dog who just can’t get enough in his gut! This can also be a sign of anxiety. Therefore, even with the over greedy dog – smaller regular-spaced meals would be advised. This is also to ensure a healthy gut & avoid digestive problems developing.

However, as much as I have said not to fuss too much and to try and be a little aloof with the dog. If it appears to gain comfort from your presence, then of course give it some company and affection. Just don’t fuss, crowd, or go “over the top.”

If the dog approaches you – certainly give a kind word & a smile & physical contact if the dog is actively seeking this out.
Some more naturally social types really need this – it gives them great comfort – & it is easy to see a dog that is inviting contact. Some nervous individuals with a high food drive can also benefit from you dropping a high value treat each time you walk pass them.
However, more often than not most dogs need some time to make the initial adjustment without too much interference.

Please Note:
Most species of animals take approximately 14 to 21 days to habituate to a new environment, and that is often only the beginning!

Their incredible ability to adapt is probably one of the most important facts to take into account when discussing the adoption issue. Virtually ALL dogs from all kinds of backgrounds, will be able to adapt & habituate to a new environment – if the environment is an appropriate one, and the dog is given time, and his needs are satisfied (that is physical, emotional & intellectual needs)! Therefore the way the dog is initially handled is vital to a successful rehabilitation and success!

Most dogs when they arrive at a new location are extremely stressed.
Even if they were friendly, bouncy, playful dogs at the shelter / foster home, perhaps happily interacting with people / playing ball / running around etc, the transition to a new environment can be a very frightening time for a dog and he may behave in a very different manner than when you first met him! Try not to take it personally! It has nothing to do with you at all – Stress can almost paralyse some individuals – so back off and give him some time!

It must be pointed out that many dogs spend a fair bit of time at a shelter before being adopted. Therefore, the shelter becomes their “home” – their territory, & the place they would perceive to be a “safe” location. This is even more relevant if the shelter environment has been a “kennel” type “pound” facility.

Not all dogs adopted are fortunate enough to have been in a family foster home environment, or for that matter from a good, well run shelter where dogs are socialised, walked and have human contact whilst in shelter care. There are many shelters that are terrible places of disease and squalor.

Lots of dogs, who come out of the old fashioned concrete kennel “pound” type environments that are lucky enough to find a home, could already be suffering from various behavioural conditions synonymous with confinement – such as kennel dog syndrome, (severe stress behaviours caused by confinement and lack of mental and physical stimulation).

These dogs can be overwhelmed by a large garden and may suffer from agoraphobia (a condition characterised by an irrational fear of public or open spaces)! Crowds of people too can be overwhelming!

A large noisy family can be overwhelming to a dog that has spent time in a concrete wire kennel enclosure!

It is a known fact that dogs that come out of pound type environment have far less chance of being re-homed than dogs in good family foster homes! Many dogs kept in these kinds of shelters stand little chance of being re-homed – many as a direct result of kennel dog syndrome.

Dogs confined for long periods of time in “pound” type facilities often become withdrawn, loose condition and interest in their surroundings & can display stereotypical behaviours (repeated patterns of behaviours for no specific purpose or reason). In severe cases even self mutilate – (acral lick granulomas) – itself a form of stereotypical behaviour whereupon the dog chews itself excessively until lesions are formed & often-permanent tissue damage can occur.

The self-licking and chewing acts as a release of tension for dogs, which are bored, socially isolated, confined for long periods of time. Pacing can also be evident, as can spinning or tail chasing – all three of these problems can sometimes be linked to confinement stress related behaviours – where animals are kept in an area with little or no mental stimulation – common in a “pound” type environment. All these behaviours can also become habituated – even after re-homing!

Loose stools can also be a problem in these kinds of environments and whilst can often be connected to internal parasites can also be a symptom of stress and severe anxiety.

Dogs arriving at a new location or environment, can be extremely vulnerable, & need space and time to start the adjustment period.

Many people automatically assume that every nervous, shy, timid and neurotic rescue dog has been physically abused and/or beaten. There are of course many forms of abuse, however, if your rescue dog is avoiding people or exhibiting fear aggression it does not necessarily mean that he has been beaten. In my experience many of these dogs have not necessarily been physically abused.

Of course some certainly bear the scars of physical abuse that is a given….. However, there are many individuals who have simply been kept in total isolation – resulting in poor social skills, severe anxiety/stress & often fear related behaviours. However, dogs who have experienced a total absence of socialisation – both inter and intra species, (“people / dog” and/or “dog/dog”) for example – dogs that have been kept as “yard dogs” who have been kept isolated behind four walls, with nothing to occupy themselves with, and little or no mental/physical stimulation, will often present with stress/anxiety, lack of confidence and poor people skills, it is often mistaken as signs of physical abuse.

Many people feel that they have to give these shelter dogs extra love and double attention – in order to make up for what the dog has lost out on – just give and give and give and then give even more…………. with little thought to the behavioural patterns they are setting. Dogs habituate behaviour very very quickly, & from the beginning, the rules you set could quite likely be the ones that you are stuck with, & in some cases you could live to regret!

If a dog is successful in its aim – it will certainly repeat the behaviour that caused the success! Each and every time! So think very carefully about some of the more basic things like for example where is the dog going to sleep?
It would be very unfair to start him off in the main bedroom (no matter how sorry you feel for him) if your end aim is to have him sleep in the kitchen. So decide from the beginning where the dog is going to sleep.

Prepare an area where you have decided the dog can sleep.
Make sure he is provided with his “safe” place / crate / bed / quiet undisturbed corner etc.

Try to get him outside last thing before you go to bed if possible to encourage him to toilet – if he doesn’t comply – don’t worry. It is possible that he is going to have a few “accidents” for which you should be prepared.

Don’t put newspaper down for him to toilet on at night (or any other time) as this would be sending him the message that toileting indoor is ok! If you are able to – it is often suggested that you set your alarm clock and get up a couple of times a night for the first few days & go outside with him to see if he is willing to toilet. If we limit his choices – there is less chance of an “accident” however – there are no guarantees!

Anxious dogs often present with loose stools! Getting up a couple of times through the night to give him an opportunity to toilet outside for a few days is well worth the effort!

Whilst I would not feed him or offer food late the first night (feed mid afternoon for the second meal of the day for several days before you change meal times). To help make him feel safe it might be a good idea, when you retire for the night, to leave him with something high value to chew. Preferably something non-synthetic a suitable bone, or hide chew or some cow hooves with some yummy filling – peanut butter or beef stock smeared inside. This will help him to vent any frustration on (chewing is good for “venting”) and keep him occupied whilst all on his own. This could also save your kitchen cupboards – dogs often chew to relive stress! Providing him with something to chew when you are not able to supervise him often reduces house damage!

Dogs who have come from “kennel / pound” environments are rarely taken out to toilet so often have little choice but to toilet on the concrete floor. How is a dog from such a background supposed to differentiate between tiles and concrete? A good many of these dogs will need to be taught toilet habits from scratch.

If you have other dogs & they are socially compatible, you could simply put him in the same area where the other dog/s sleep – their company would make him feel safe & he is then less likely to panic. The existing dogs could most likely also “role model” many behaviours to him so this would also help him to feel secure and begin the journey of habituating to his new home. Just ensure that he has his own space/bed etc in case he needs an “out.” An indoor dog crate or kennel is ideal for this purpose and is mobile and can be moved wherever you are. Double bonus, the dog is provided with a safe haven but is not excluded!

Each individual person has a different point of view as to where a dog should sleep at night. There are no right or wrong rules (as long as you are not dealing with an aggression problem or a dog who has personal space issues or one who likes to defend his sleeping area). You are the one who decides where the dog sleeps. It is your dog and that is your right!
Everyone has a different point of view. As long as you know any rules or indeed privileges that you set now are most likely going to be lasting ones!

If you decide you don’t want him on your bed etc then confine him to a designated sleeping area or crate train him so he can sleep next to your bed so he doesn’t feel alone, (thus safe and not abandoned!)

If he decides to approach you – great! You should show pleasure and verbally praise with positive non-invasive body language. Don’t lean over the dog or be invasive in your demeanour – as dogs perceive this at threatening. A good idea is to only approach him with your shoulder leading as this is perceived as non-threatening, or you could make yourself smaller if you are able to do this without leaning forward. If he is an only dog you can pop him a soft, high value treat each time he approaches you on his own bat – However be careful if one of your existing dogs has resource guarding issues or is defensive over high value treats or objects.

If he keeps his distance don’t force the issue, and don’t ever in the early stages force him to interact with you if he is unwilling. In addition if he shows fear of anything NEVER force him to confront his fears. Once he as settled in you can start to put together a programme to work on fear using counter conditioning and positive reinforcement and other +R desensitisation methods.

Let him be rewarded for approaching you – let him find the interactions valuable and rewarding. This will eventually equate to him wanting to please you because there is a pay off! This is a good foundation for future canine/human interactions. The only exception would be if a dog was ill or needed veterinary attention – then the rule of course does not apply.

For the first 24 hours I would keep the kids & everyone else in the family really low key.
Over the next couple of days – depending on the dog’s individual tolerance levels, you can start introducing the family one at a time.

Don’t introduce them all at once – especially if you have a large rowdy family.
One at a time is enough for him to cope with at this stage.

Keep visitors at a minimum, and let the dog decide if he wants to interact or not. Initially instruct your visitors to be as non-influential as possible! If he shows interest – get the visitor to drop a soft, high value treat on the floor and if the dog approaches looking for more, they can repeat and build up to letting him take the treat from their hand.

Make sure that if treats are being given that you flatten your hand (like feeding a horse) as many rescue dogs have no tit bit manners & may snatch, which could give the visitors / kids a fright and also panic the dog… …………. so set him up for success – not failure!

This should be your attitude in all interactions and with all his experiences!
Don’t force him to interact if he is not ready!
It is early days yet and you have lots of time!
Expect an adjustment period. You might be pleasantly surprised – some rescue dogs come into a new home & within a few hours it is as if they have always been there. However, the vast majority need time to get to know you & your family & lean each other’s personalities & quirks. Remember he doesn’t know your routines. He doesn’t know your rules. He doesn’t know your friends. He doesn’t know lots of stuff. So give him time to adjust!

After going through such a trauma as being re-homed at least twice in a reasonable period of time – he is going to make mistakes! Both of you are going to have to work hard together for you both to feel at home and content. As mentioned previously the average dog needs approximately two weeks to habituate to the new environment!

I often get calls from clients who have adopted a rescue dog and they tell me that for the first couple of weeks he has been an “absolute angel!” then suddenly he has “changed” & become the dog from hell! Hmnnnn ………… the dog has now habituated to his new environment is now starting to feel safe and have trust in you – and sometimes this is when it becomes evident why he was surrendered in the first place.

Fortunately for the dog – by that time, the new owners have fallen in love with him – so are usually more than willing to work through any issues that start appearing at this stage. So be aware that this could be on the cards, and have some plans in action to deal with some of the more common problems.

He Won’t Know The Rules
This is a big one. Every home has different rules. This dog might have gone from comfy living (or not, depending on his origin), to a place with very few comforts (the shelter), to your home, which probably seems like paradise after the shelter. He’s not going to know what to do, or what not do. You will need to start to gently guide him into your routines & gently introduce any house rules.

Dogs are also great opportunists. Even if he’s never sat on a sofa before coming to live with you, he’ll probably try anyway, just to see if you’ll let him. The same goes for begging for food, or sleeping on the bed. Don’t punish him for trying, but try to limit his choices and not put him in the position where he is able to make the “wrong” choice.

Good Rules To Establish:
• Give him his own area to eat in. Don’t expect him to eat close to other dogs – nor should you let children pester him whilst he is eating – he might have had to fight to get a meal at some stage! An indoor dog crate is a wonderful thing to use as a “safe “place. However, he might need to be gradually accustomised to the crate & this could take a bit of time – especially if he has not had previous positive crate experiences.
• He should not be disturbed when in his “safe” place – his “safe place” “rights” in this regard should be respected – especially by the children. He deserves a place where he can escape to if he feels the need. This includes his own space to sleep in – again respect his rights – and he should not be pestered by the kids when he is in his bed
• To help bonding with the dog – the entire family should take turns providing meals & the good things in life.
• The same goes with calm play – (unless he is fearful) try to get the whole family involved as play is a wonderful way to bond!
• The family can also take turns with the scoop the poop duties – this is also a good idea to help teach everyone what a responsibility it is to own a dog.
• Encourage the whole family to take part in some basic training such as teaching the dog to “come” when called. All learning should be reward based & using basic positive reinforcement methods & each and every interaction should be rewarding in some way for the dog.

Be careful which rules you establish / reinforce!
Beware of giving a dog attention whilst exhibiting behaviours you dislike –the attention could be perceived as a reward and the behaviour will escalate!

Rather concentrate on rewarding and giving the dog attention when he is displaying behaviour that you approve of.
Ignore or redirect the negative and reward and praise the positive!

Remember not to concentrate on what you DON’T want the dog to do – instead, try and think out of the box for something that the dog can do INSTEAD!

Taking on a shelter dog is one of the most rewarding things in the world. It is so gratifying to see an individual animal come out of its shell and flourish emotionally and often physically.

In my opinion, often a shelter dog can be more willing to please – more willing to want to work and more willing to give you their “ALL” (especially the working breeds) than many other dogs acquired through reputable breeders and or other “normal” avenues.

I freely admit I am prejudiced, and having had a house full of rescues and shelter dogs for decades, can honestly say it is the only way I would ever acquire a dog! Sure they come with excess baggage – but in my opinion, each and every hang-up and issue is well worth working through!

Louise Thompson
Paws Abilities Behaviour & Learning Centre.
*Senior Accredited Animal Behaviour Consultant & Professional Trainer
Accredited as a *Senior Consultant with the Animal Behaviour Consultants of Southern Africa©®™.
Registration No *SAABC/1996/004/Canine/Feline/Equine/Avian
Certified Companion Animal Behaviourist.
Certified with the SA Board of Companion Animal Professionals.
Registration No AB/63
Member of the Pet Professional Guild – The International Association for Force Free Pet Professionals.
Honorary Life Member of TOP DOGS (Touch Our Pets) Therapy assistance dogs.
Vice-Chairman & Accreditation Secretary of the ABC of SA ©®™

See our Paws Abilities website: http://www.paws-abilities.wix.com/pawsabilities
& facebook discussion group: http://www.facebook.com/groups/407523655991810/?bookmark_t=group

Dr. Ian Dunbar’s Dog Bite Scale (Official Authorized Version)

An assessment of the severity of biting problems based on an objective evaluation of wound pathology

Level 1. Obnoxious or aggressive behavior but no skin-contact by teeth.

Level 2. Skin-contact by teeth but no skin-puncture. However, may be skin nicks (less than one tenth of an inch deep) and slight bleeding caused by forward or lateral movement of teeth against skin, but no vertical punctures.

Level 3. One to four punctures from a single bite with no puncture deeper than half the length of the dog’s canine teeth. Maybe lacerations in a single direction, caused by victim pulling hand away, owner pulling dog away, or gravity (little dog jumps, bites and drops to floor).

Level 4. One to four punctures from a single bite with at least one puncture deeper than half the length of the dog’s canine teeth. May also have deep bruising around the wound (dog held on for N seconds and bore down) or lacerations in both directions (dog held on and shook its head from side to side).

Level 5. Multiple-bite incident with at least two Level 4 bites or multiple-attack incident with at least one Level 4 bite in each.

Level 6. Victim dead.

The above list concerns unpleasant behavior and so, to add perspective:

Levels 1 and 2 comprise well over 99% of dog incidents. The dog is certainly not dangerous and more likely to be fearful, rambunctious, or out of control. Wonderful prognosis. Quickly resolve the problem with basic training (control) — especially oodles of Classical Conditioning, numerous repetitive Retreat n’ Treat, Come/Sit/Food Reward and Back- up/Approach/Food Reward sequences, progressive desensitization handling exercises, plus numerous bite-inhibition exercises and games. Hand feed only until resolved; do NOT waste potential food rewards by feeding from a bowl.

Level 3: Prognosis is fair to good, provided that you have owner compliance. However, treatment is both time-consuming and not without danger. Rigorous bite-inhibition exercises are essential.

Levels 4: The dog has insufficient bite inhibition and is very dangerous. Prognosis is poor because of the difficulty and danger of trying to teach bite inhibition to an adult hard-biting dog and because absolute owner-compliance is rare. Only work with the dog in exceptional circumstances, e.g., the owner is a dog professional and has sworn 100% compliance. Make sure the owner signs a form in triplicate stating that they understand and take full responsibility that………..

1. The dog is a Level 4 biter and is likely to cause an equivalent amount of damage WHEN it bites again (which it most probably will) and should therefore, be confined to the home at all times and only allowed contact with adult owners.

2. Whenever, children or guests visit the house, the dog should be confined to a single locked- room or roofed, chain-link run with the only keys kept on a chain around the neck of each adult owner (to prevent children or guests entering the dog’s confinement area.)

3. The dog is muzzled before leaving the house and only leaves the house for visits to a veterinary clinic. 4. The incidents have all been reported to the relevant authorities — animal control or police. Give the owners one copy, keep one copy for your files and give one copy to the dog’s veterinarian.

Level 5 and 6: The dog is extremely dangerous and mutilates. The dog is simply not safe around people. I recommend euthanasia because the quality of life is so poor for dogs that have to live out their lives in solitary confinement.

Force free science based behaviour modification and training

Eden K9 Abilties

George van Huyssteen (DipCABT)
Affiliate Member CAPBT SA
Garden Route, South Africa